Ancient Roman Civilization
The Rome Civilization is probably the most well known of all time, and with good reason. The Romans were highly sophisticated, and by far ahead of their time period. As the legend goes, two twins named Romulus and Remus were born to the war god Mars and a Latin princess. The Latin king was afraid these boys would take his throne so he sent them floating down the Tiber River, thinking they would die. However a shepherd found them and raised them. The boys later vowed to build a city where they were born. Eventually each of them chose a hill, and they began to quarrel. These quarrels led to Romulus killing Remus, and the city was built on Romulus's hilltop, Palatine, which was the centre of the new city called Rome.
The truth of this legend cannot be proven, but what is certain is that villages in the area of Rome began around 753 BC and started settling around the Tiber River. These areas slowly built up and by 200 BC Rome had become a powerful empire. This is right around the time the Punic Wars began. Carthage and Greece broke into war and Greece asked Rome to become an ally. This would begin the first of three Punic Wars.
The First Punic War (264-241 BC) was fought for control of Sicily - the Carthaginians wanted the Greek city Sicily. These battles took place over land and sea, and the Romans won. In the Second Punic War (218-201 BC) the Carthaginians led by Hannibal decided to invade Italy. He marched to Rome with 90,000 infantry, 12,000 cavalry, and 40 elephants, and over half of his soldiers died on the way. At the end of this war the Carthaginians won - Hannibal lost 8,000 men in the fighting, and Rome lost 70,000. In the Third and final Punic War (149-146 BC), the Roman army defeated Hannibal and the Carthaginians were either killed or sold as slaves.
After all of this fighting Rome had become the most powerful civilization in the world, and decided to expand the borders. This is when Caesar took power and expanded the borders of Rome, therefore also expanding Rome's power. After his conquests Caesar was killed, and willed Rome to Octavian. However, Marc Antony also wanted power of Rome and they became Rivals. Eventually Antony committed suicide leaving Octavian, who would later rename himself Augustus, in power.
Rome went through a state of peace for over 200 more years, and had few problems, but when Marcus Arelius died in 180 AD, Rome was ruled by decadence. Then eventually Rome was split into Rome and Byzantium. Rome eventually fell to the army of the Alaric.
There are probably two things that set the Romans apart from the other civilizations. These things are most likely the Roman architecture and their worship of the gods. The Romans, like the Greeks, believed there was a god for every natural thing. Some of the Roman architecture is world famous. Perhaps one of the most famous buildings is the Coliseum. They are also famous for their statues, and decadence, extravagant money spending, and elaborate possessions.