"In Early Mesopotamia (around mid 4th millennium BC) Cuneiform script was invented. Cuneiform literally means "wedge-shaped", due to the triangular tip of the stylus used for impressing signs on wet clay. The earliest texts (7 archaic tablets) come from an ancient temple dedicated to the goddess Inanna at Uruk.
Cuneiform was extremely complicated, scribes had to train for years to be able to use the Cuneiform for the various languages of Sumerian, Akkadian and Aramaic. But having it allowed greater communication and record keeping for scientific, administration, literary, religion, and governmental uses."
"The world's first recorded chemist is considered to be a woman named Tapputi, a perfume maker who was mentioned in a cuneiform tablet from the second millennium BC in Mesopotamia. She distilled flowers, oil, and calamus with other aromatics then filtered and put them back in the still several times.
Recently, archaeologists have uncovered what are believed to be the world's oldest perfumes in Pyrgos, Cyprus. The perfumes date back more than 4,000 years. The perfumes were discovered in an ancient perfumery. At least 60 stills, mixing bowls, funnels and perfume bottles were found in the 43,000-square-foot (4,000 m2) factory. Four of the perfumes have been re-created from residues found at the site."