"Long before recorded history mankind had found lumps of metal and hammered it into useful shapes. However, at some unknown time in early Mesopotamia the ability to purify metal from ore, then smelt and form it using heat, unearthed a new world of tools. Rocks rich in copper, tin, and lead could now be more readily used and they came into demand.
Sometime around 6000 BCE copper smelting became common, which later lead to uncovering the secrets of bronze and iron smelting. Better tools, such as plows and scythes, as well as weapons and armour revolutionized society at every level and time."
"The world's first recorded chemist is considered to be a woman named Tapputi, a perfume maker who was mentioned in a cuneiform tablet from the second millennium BC in Mesopotamia. She distilled flowers, oil, and calamus with other aromatics then filtered and put them back in the still several times.
Recently, archaeologists have uncovered what are believed to be the world's oldest perfumes in Pyrgos, Cyprus. The perfumes date back more than 4,000 years. The perfumes were discovered in an ancient perfumery. At least 60 stills, mixing bowls, funnels and perfume bottles were found in the 43,000-square-foot (4,000 m2) factory. Four of the perfumes have been re-created from residues found at the site."