Ancient Babylonian Civilization
The Babylonian Civilization began around the 18th century B.C. and ended around the 6th century B.C. This civilization was very similar to the Sumerian Civilization. The Babylonian Civilization was based highly on agriculture and very little on industry.
Babylonian Civilization was run by a king, who was in complete control and exercised powers in all branches of government. The country is said to have consisted of about 12 or 13 cities, and was surrounded by villages and small towns. The Babylonians took the Sumerian culture and basically transformed it into a culture almost entirely of its own. This resulting culture was highly popular and effective, as it was used, without change, for 1200 years. It was copied and modified by almost every other country in the world at the time, especially Assyria, which exactly replicated Babylonian culture.
The Babylonians are complimented with several huge successes in their time. One of these is their creating of the Hanging Gardens of Babylon that was constructed in 600 B.C. by King Nebuchadnezzar. These hanging gardens were a mountain like series of planted terraces built on top of stone arches 23 meters above ground, watered by the Euphrates using a complicated mechanical system. These Hanging Gardens are one of the Seven Wonders of the World and shows exactly how precise and advanced the Babylonians were when it came to architecture and art.
The greatest leader in the first Babylonian dynasty, Hammurabi, was also responsible for the great success in Babylonian culture. Hammurabi was completely devoted to the prosperity of his empire, and he supervised all building projects of Babylon. He was also a remarkable leader and military commander. However his greatest achievement was his writing of laws governing Babylonian civilization. The code of Hammurabi states an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth. During his reign, Babylon reached a height in its cultural civilization and political power.
The Babylonians were famous for the invention and creation of new law concepts never before seen, some of these laws include legal defence and protection for lower classes, the state is responsible for enforcing the laws, social justice is guaranteed, and the punishment should fit the crime.
Babylonian cultural achievements and law left a huge impression on all the other cultures and countries of the world. Even present day countries use the same principals of law as the Babylonians. Babylonian influence is found all throughout politics, art, math, science, spirituality, astronomy, astrology, and architecture.